A detailed vitrinite reflectivity study has been made through the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of northwest James Ross Island, Antarctica. The results show that a progressive increase in reflectivity does not occur with depth and that values (0.45 %) from the base of the succession are lower than expected for the sequence as described by previous authors. Using a synthesis of sedimentological and stratigraphic information, the sequence is reinterpreted as an apparent monoclinal syncline, strongly influenced by syndepositional tectonics, with a thickness appreciably less than previously described.
By Dialogo August 13, 2012 Mexico’s victory over Brazil ended what had been a history of frustration at the Olympics. In its nine previous appearances – Amsterdam in 1928, London 1948, Tokyo 1964, Mexico City 1968, Munich 1972, Montreal 1976, Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996 and Athens 2004 – the team advanced out of pool play three times, reaching the semifinals in 1968 and the quarterfinals in 1972 and 1996. Meantime, Brazil was denied it first gold at the Olympics – the only major international tournament it hasn’t won. The five-time World Cup champions pulled within a goal in the 91st minute on a blast from striker Hulk, but couldn’t get another quality shot on frame before the end of stoppage time. The Seleção now has three silvers and two bronzes after falling just short of the golden prize. “We all know that we need to win the gold,” Brazil’s coach Mano Menezes told reporters. “Brazil has to win every tournament it plays, it needs to win every match it plays, even if it’s a friendly – and this time even more because it’s something the nation has never won before.’’ In women’s volleyball, it was another Olympics, another upset in the gold medal match for the Brazilian women. The South Americans stunned the top-seeded United States in the final for the second consecutive Summer Games with a 3-1 victory. The Americans appeared to be on their way to an easy win after taking the first set 25-11, but Brazil rallied to claim the next three sets 25-17, 25-20 and 25-17. Overall, the Brazilians have reached the semifinals of the event in six straight Olympics dating to Barcelona in 1992. Over that span, the team has claimed two gold medals and two bronzes. “We felt we lost control in the first set, but we never lost sight of our objectives, and that was to win gold,” Brazil’s Jaqueline Carvalho told reporters. “We knew the U.S. is a great team, that the game would be tough. But we managed to turn it around.’” Brazil also became the third team to repeat as gold medalists. The Soviet Union won in 1968 and 1972 and Cuba won three straight starting in 1992. Meantime, Brazil’s men’s volleyball team medaled for the sixth time in eight Olympics, but it wasn’t the color they were hoping. The top-seeded South Americans fell to Russia in the gold medal match 3-2 after holding a two-sets-to-none lead. Brazil, which earned the distinction of becoming the first team to ever blow a 2-0 lead in a final, dropped the last three games 29-27, 25-22 and 15-9. Wallace de Souza finished with 27 points for Brazil, which settled for a silver medal for the second straight Summer Games after losing the final to the United States at the 2008 Beijing Games. “It’s hard to tell,” de Souza told reporters when asked what happened. “You train a lot for that every day, you don’t believe something like that could happen. You’re winning 2-0 and then you start feeling the pressure. We came here to get the gold, but we got the silver.’” LONDON – It’s Brazil’s turn now. As the Games of the XXX Olympiad concluded on Aug. 12, the international sporting world turned its eyes toward Brazil, which will become home to three of the biggest competitions in the next four years – the 2013 Confederations Cup, the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics. But before the millions watched the closing ceremonies, Brazil and Mexico provided exclamation points to the London Games. Brazil’s women’s indoor volleyball team claimed gold and the country’s men’s team took silver. Mexico’s men’s soccer team capped a dominating run by winning its first Olympic gold with a 2-1 win over Brazil at historic Wembley Stadium. El Tri was paced by dynamic striker Oribe Peralta who scored both goals, including one in the first minute off of a takeaway in front of the Brazil 18-yard box. His second came on a header in the 75th minute to give his team a two-goal advantage, all but sealing the top spot on the medal podium. Mexico was able to routinely frustrate the Brazilian side by maintaining possession and force all pressure to the wings and into poor shooting angles. The result was a phenomenal defensive effort and the country’s first-ever medal in Olympic soccer. “We knew that the Brazilian players lose their heads really quickly when you keep the ball away from them,” Peralta told reporters. “That’s what we managed to do and, building from that basis, we were able to keep our shape and calmly play our football.”
FORMER Australia captain Ian Chappell is not confident that England will have a shot in the upcoming Ashes series without Ben Stokes.Stokes was arrested on Monday (September 25) after he was caught on video involved in a violent brawl, with footage showing him appearing to throw up to 15 punches in an incident that left him with a broken finger.The 26-year-old was detained overnight and released, proceeding to be named in England’s squad for this winter’s Ashes series.However, he has since been suspended until further notice along with Alex Hales, who was present with him, putting the duo’s involvement in the high-pressure Test series at risk.Chappell believes England will need Stokes if they have any hopes of retaining the Ashes.“With Ben Stokes in the team, England have a realistic chance of retaining the Ashes,” he wrote for Cricinfo. “If he is missing through suspension following his late-night altercation in Bristol, then there’s more chance of the Brexit decision being reversed than of England clinging to the urn.”“That’s the dilemma facing the England hierarchy. If Stokes is convicted, they will have little choice but to seal his fate. The ECB will then be taking a decision it knows will almost certainly sentence the team to defeat.“Nevertheless Stokes is innocent until proved guilty, so let’s proceed with a breakdown of the two teams on the basis that he’ll be in Australia, receiving endless taunts both on and off the field.”Chappell adds that it is not only Stokes’ ability that will be missed but his character and ability to make a difference when it matters.“It’s not only Stokes’ skill with bat, ball and in the field that makes a difference to England but also his competitive aura,” Chappell added. “His match-winning capabilities drag his team-mates along with him, and because he’s not overawed by an opponent, it helps to boost any England player who feels overmatched in Australia.”“He is a serious difference-maker.”With the interest in Test cricket gradually declining over the years, the 74-year-old also issued a warning that the highly-anticipated Ashes series could be affected by the absence of the England all-rounder.“The upcoming Ashes series has the potential to be just what Test cricket desperately needs: a highly competitive and hard-fought contest,” he explained.“However, it will be severely diminished if Stokes is absent, meaning that Australia could virtually wrap up the series before a ball is even bowled, following a blow delivered by one of their fiercest opponents.”